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Two kilometers below the surface of the Vale Creighton mine near Sudbury, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) searched for solar neutrinos, subatomic particles produced by nuclear fusion in the sun. Solar neutrinos are one of the fundamental particles that make up the universe and can be studied by examining how they interact with heavy water. Physicists at Queen’s Univeristy, Laurentian University, University of Guelph and Carleton University demonstrated in 2001 that neutrinos change their “flavour” after leaving the Sun’s core and that they have mass. This showed that the basic laws of physics are incomplete and suggested how they might be refined to give a fuller description of the subatomic world.